Increasing Vaccine Confidence among Long-Term Care Workers: Expedited COVID-19 Targeted PCORI Funding Announcement -- April 2021

Funding Agency:
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute

The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) plans to release a Targeted PCORI Funding Announcement (tPFA) on April 13, 2021, soliciting high-quality, comparative effectiveness research projects focused on the following question: What interventions are effective in increasing COVID-19 vaccine confidence and uptake among long-term care (LTC) workers? 

Low vaccination coverage among individuals working in LTC settings was described in a February 2021 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report and reported widely in the media.[1] LTC settings include nursing facility care, adult day programs, retirement communities, post-acute rehab, assisted living, and community-based services. Although efforts to promote confidence in COVID-19 vaccination among LTC workers are ongoing, a November 2020 survey found that only 45 percent of respondents were willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine immediately once available and an additional 24 percent would consider it in the future. Frequently cited reasons for lack of vaccine confidence included the perceived rapidity of vaccine development; inadequate information received about vaccine safety, side effects, and administration; and skepticism regarding the clinical trials and vaccine authorization processes.

Per an April 2020 Kaiser Family Foundation report, the LTC workforce consists of a variety of occupations and workers with different levels of direct day-to-day patient contact, but most of the 4.5 million LTC workers are in close, frequent contact with patients. The vast majority of the LTC workforce is female (82 percent). Nearly half of aides and personal care workers are Black or Latinx (32 percent and 16 percent, respectively), and approximately one in four direct-care workers in LTC settings were born in a foreign country. LTC workers overall are also disproportionately lower-wage earners and with less formal education. Nearly one-third live in a family with income below 200 percent of the poverty level and nearly 40 percent have a high school diploma or less.

Increasing vaccine confidence and uptake among LTC workers requires consideration of these demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic factors described above. In addition, interventions need to take into account the structural challenges of LTC settings, including longstanding personnel shortages, high turnover, individuals working in multiple settings, and limited resources for worker outreach and education. Increasing confidence and uptake among LTC workers is critical to protecting the workers themselves; other workers they associate with; the patients and families they serve; and the loved ones, friends, and neighbors in the communities in which they reside.

Deadline: May 4, 2021

Agency Website

Areas of Interest

PCORI encourages the submission of applications to address the following question: What interventions are effective in increasing COVID-19 vaccine confidence and uptake among LTC workers?

Interventions include but are not limited to (and please note multiple types of interventions may be utilized):

  • Educational, communication, and behavioral economics strategies, tools, or approaches
  • System- or organizational-level responses
  • Social media, digital marketing, and other innovative technologies (e.g., smartphone applications)
  • Culturally specific and/or community competent approaches for reducing barriers

Funding Type





Medical - Clinical Science
Medical - Translational
Social Sciences

External Deadline

May 4, 2021